Fingerprinting was the most accurate way to identify a suspect at the scene of a crime. But in the recent times, Forensic DNA testing that is more accurate method of identifying individual especially in connection with crime detection. Even though it takes usually several weeks to know the test results due to enormous work involved in matching the base pair sequences, it is extremely accurate and the odds of going wrong is 350 million to one.
Forensic DNA testing is accepted as the most accurate form of scientific evidence legally. An examination of the DNA sequences of any organism can lead to the identification of its specific species.
Uses of Forensic DNA testing
Forensic DNA testing has made a big breakthrough in tracking suspects in a crime as it can match evidence left at the scene of crime accurately to identify the criminal. Persons wrongly accused of crimes can be exonerated. This testing is very useful in identifying crime victims and also catastrophe victims. This testing can establish paternity and family relationships. This testing helps in detecting bacteria and other organisms that may pollute air, soil, water and food. These tests play a meaningful role in identifying endangered or protected species to help wildlife authorities in prosecuting poachers. In organ transplant cases, DNA testing can match the donors with the recipients. Other uses include authentication of consumables such as wine and caviar and determining the pedigree for breeds of seed and livestock.
Technologies used in Forensic DNA testing
Usually, RELP, PCR Analysis, STR Analysis, Mitochondrial DNA Analysis and Y-Chromosome Analysis are the kinds of tests used in Forensic DNA testing.
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RELP is a technique that analyzes the variable lengths of DNA fragments obtained by digesting a sample with a special enzyme. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR helps to make millions of identical copies of DNA form a biological sample. A standard set of 13 specific STR regions is used by the FBI to use the profiles from convicted offenders as evidence from crime scenes or missing persons. Other tests are useful in identifying paternity or ancestry.
DNA testing is the most accurate evidence legally accepted to identify a criminal or suspect. Forensic DNA tests are useful in saving innocent lives and victims of crime and catastrophe.
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